Although cognitive psychology began in earnest in the 1960s buy line extra super avana impotence at 60, earlier psychologists had also taken a cognitive orientation extra super avana 260mg visa erectile dysfunction protocol review scam. Some of the important contributors to cognitive psychology include the German psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850–1909), who studied the ability of people to remember lists of words under different conditions, and the English psychologist Sir Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. Bartlett created short stories that were in some ways logical but also contained some very unusual and unexpected events. Bartlett discovered that people found it very difficult to recall the stories exactly, even after being allowed to study them repeatedly, and he hypothesized that the stories were difficult to remember because they did not fit the participants’ expectations about how stories should go. The idea that our memory is influenced by what we already know was also a major idea behind the cognitive-developmental stage model of Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget (1896–1980). Broadbent (1926–1993), Daniel Kahneman (1934–), George Miller (1920–), Eleanor Rosch (1938–), and Amos Tversky (1937–1996). The War of the Ghosts The War of the Ghosts was a story used by Sir Frederic Bartlett to test the influence of prior expectations on memory. Bartlett found that even when his British research participants were allowed to read the story many times they still could not remember it well, and he believed this was because it did not fit with their prior knowledge. One night two young men from Egulac went down to the river to hunt seals and while they were there it became foggy and calm. Now canoes came up, and they heard the noise of paddles, and saw one canoe coming up to them. But presently the young man heard one of the warriors Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. So the canoes went back to Egulac and the young man went ashore to his house and made a fire. And he told everybody and said: ―Behold I accompanied the ghosts, and we went to fight. According to cognitive psychologists, ignoring the mind itself will never be sufficient because people interpret the stimuli that they experience. For instance, when a boy turns to a girl on a date and says,“You are so beautiful,‖ a behaviorist would probably see that as a reinforcing (positive) stimulus. She might try to understand why the boy is making this particular statement at this particular time and wonder if he might be attempting to influence her through the comment. Cognitive psychologists maintain that when we take into consideration how stimuli are evaluated and interpreted, we understand behavior more deeply. Cognitive psychology remains enormously influential today, and it has guided research in such varied fields as language, problem solving, memory, intelligence, education, human development, social psychology, and psychotherapy. The cognitive revolution has been given even more life over the past decade as the result of recent advances in our ability to see the brain in action using neuroimaging techniques. Neuroimaging is the use of various techniques to provide pictures of the structure and function of the living brain (Ilardi & Feldman,  2001). These images are used to diagnose brain disease and injury, but they also allow researchers to view information processing as it occurs in the brain, because the processing causes the involved area of the brain to increase metabolism and show up on the scan. We have already discussed the use of one neuroimaging technique, functional magnetic resonance Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. Social-Cultural Psychology A final school, which takes a higher level of analysis and which has had substantial impact on psychology, can be broadly referred to as the social-cultural approach. The field of social- cultural psychology is the study of how the social situations and the cultures in which people find themselves influence thinking and behavior. Social-cultural psychologists are particularly concerned with how people perceive themselves and others, and how people influence each other’s behavior. For instance, social psychologists have found that we are attracted to others  who are similar to us in terms of attitudes and interests (Byrne, 1969), that we develop our  own beliefs and attitudes by comparing our opinions to those of others (Festinger, 1954), and that we frequently change our beliefs and behaviors to be similar to those of the people we care about—a process known as conformity. An important aspect of social-cultural psychology are social norms—the ways of thinking, feeling, or behaving that are shared by group members and perceived by them as  appropriate (Asch, 1952; Cialdini, 1993). Norms include customs, traditions, standards, and rules, as well as the general values of the group. Many of the most important social norms are determined by theculture in which we live, and these cultures are studied by cross-cultural psychologists. A culture represents the common set of social norms, including religious and family values and other moral beliefs, shared by the people who live in a geographical region (Fiske, Kitayama, Markus, & Nisbett, 1998; Markus, Kitayama, & Heiman, 1996;  Matsumoto, 2001). Cultures influence every aspect of our lives, and it is not inappropriate to say that our culture defines our lives just as much as does our evolutionary experience (Mesoudi,  2009). Psychologists have found that there is a fundamental difference in social norms between Western cultures (including those in the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Australia, and New Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. Norms in Western cultures are primarily oriented toward individualism, which is about valuing the self and one’s independence from others. Children in Western cultures are taught to develop and to value a sense of their personal self, and to see themselves in large part as separate from the other people around them. Children in Western cultures feel special about themselves; they enjoy getting gold stars on their projects and the best grade in the class. Adults in Western cultures are oriented toward promoting their own individual success, frequently in comparison to (or even at the expense of) others. Norms in the East Asian culture, on the other hand, are oriented toward interdependence or collectivism. In these cultures children are taught to focus on developing harmonious social relationships with others. The predominant norms relate to group togetherness and connectedness, and duty and responsibility to one’s family and other groups. When asked to describe themselves, the members of East Asian cultures are more likely than those from Western cultures to indicate that they are particularly concerned about the interests of others, including their close friends and their colleagues. Another important cultural difference is the extent to which people in different cultures are bound by social norms and customs, rather than being free to express their own individuality  without considering social norms (Chan, Gelfand, Triandis, & Tzeng, 1996). Cultures also differ in terms of personal space, such as how closely individuals stand to each other when talking, as well as the communication styles they employ. It is important to be aware of cultures and cultural differences because people with different cultural backgrounds increasingly come into contact with each other as a result of increased travel and immigration and the development of the Internet and other forms of communication. In the United States, for instance, there are many different ethnic groups, and the proportion of the population that comes from minority (non-White) groups is increasing from year to year. The social-cultural approach to understanding behavior reminds us again of the difficulty of making Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. Different people experience things differently, and they experience them differently in different cultures. The Many Disciplines of Psychology Psychology is not one discipline but rather a collection of many subdisciplines that all share at least some common approaches and that work together and exchange knowledge to form a  coherent discipline (Yang & Chiu, 2009). Because the field of psychology is so broad, students may wonder which areas are most suitable for their interests and which types of careers might be available to them. You can learn more about these different fields of psychology and the careers associated with them at http://www. Clinical and counseling psychologists provide therapy to These are the largest fields of patients with the goal of improving their life experiences. The focus is on the They work in hospitals, schools, social agencies, and in counseling assessment, diagnosis, causes, and private practice.
Some of the people who helped bring this book to market include the following: Acquisitions purchase 260mg extra super avana with amex erectile dysfunction nicotine, Editorial discount 260 mg extra super avana fast delivery buying erectile dysfunction pills online, and Media Development Composition Services Senior Project Editor: Christina Guthrie Project Coordinator: Patrick Redmond Project Editor: Stephen R. Jumper, Julie Trippetti, Acquisitions Editor: Stacy Kennedy Erin Zeltner Senior Copy Editor: Elizabeth Rea Special Art: Kathryn Born, M. Cocks, Product Development Director, Consumer Dummies Michael Spring, Vice President and Publisher, Travel Kelly Regan, Editorial Director, Travel Publishing for Technology Dummies Andy Cummings, Vice President and Publisher, Dummies Technology/General User Composition Services Gerry Fahey, Vice President of Production Services Debbie Stailey, Director of Composition Services Contents at a Glance Introduction................................................................................. In Anatomy & Physiology Workbook For Dummies, you discover intricacies that will leave you agog with wonder. The human body is a miraculous biological machine capable of growing, interacting with the world, and even reproducing despite any number of environmental odds stacked against it. Understanding how the body’s interlaced systems accomplish these feats requires a close look at every- thing from chemistry to structural mechanics. Early anatomists relied on dissections to study the human body, which is why the Greek word anatomia means “to cut up or dissect. That’s why more than two millennia later we still use words based on Greek and Latin roots to identify anatomical structures. That’s also part of the reason so much of the study of anatomy and physiology feels like learning a foreign language. Truth be told, you are working with a foreign language, but it’s the language of you and the one body you’re ever going to have. About This Book This workbook isn’t meant to replace a textbook, and it’s certainly not meant to replace going to an actual anatomy and physiology class. It works best as a supplement to your ongoing education and as a study aid in prepping for exams. That’s why we give you insight into what your instructor most likely will emphasize as you move from one body system or structure to the next. Your coursework most likely will cover things in a different order than we’ve chosen for this book. We encourage you to take full advantage of the table of contents and the index to find the material addressed in your class. Whatever you do, certainly don’t feel obligated to go through this workbook in any particular order. However, please do answer the practice ques- tions and check the answers at the end of each chapter because, in addition to answers, we clarify why the right answer is the right answer and why the other answers are incorrect; we also provide you with memory tools and other tips whenever possible. Conventions Used in This Book Half the battle of studying anatomy and physiology is getting comfortable with the jargon. To help you navigate through this book, we use the following typographical conventions: Italics are used for emphasis and to highlight new words or terms that are defined in the text. Boldface is used to indicate keywords in bulleted lists or the action parts of numbered steps. Anatomy & Physiology Workbook For Dummies 2 Foolish Assumptions In writing Anatomy & Physiology Workbook For Dummies, we had to make some assumptions about you, the reader. If any of the following apply, this book’s for you: You’re an advanced high school student or college student trying to puzzle out anatomy and physiology for the first time. You’re a student at any level who’s returning to the topic after some time away, and you need some refreshing. You’re facing an anatomy and physiology exam and want a good study tool to ensure that you have a firm grasp of the topic. Because this is a workbook, we had to limit our exposition of each and every topic so that we could include lots of practice questions to keep you guessing. How This Book Is Organized Anatomy and physiology are very far-reaching topics, so it only makes sense that this workbook is divided into parts, each of which is divided into a number of chapters. The following sections preview the part topics to give you an idea of what you can find where. Part I: Building Blocks of the Body We begin at the very beginning — chemistry — because it’s a very good place to start. Stop moaning and groaning — chemistry really isn’t as difficult as it’s been made out to be. It’s an integral part of understanding what the body’s cells are doing and how they’re doing it. We cover the basics from the atom on up and introduce the processes that keep the whole package operating smoothly. Cells are living things, just like the bodies of which they are a part, and they have the same cycles as all living things do: They grow, mature, reproduce, and die. By layering thousands upon thousands of similar cells on top of one another, tissues with unique structures and functions are formed. This part covers the primary types of tissues and where you’ll find them in the body. In this part, we breathe life into the respiratory system with a close look at the lungs and everything attached to them, we feed your hunger for knowledge about how nutrients fuel the anatomical package, and we get to the heart of the well-oiled human machine to show how the central pump is the hardest-working muscle in the entire body. None of that matters without a strong defense system, so we touch on the lymphatic system. And don’t forget: All that metabolizing is bound to lead to some waste and by-products; we package up the trash and show you how the body takes it to the dumpster. But we do take a close look at perpetuating humanity through reproductive successes. This part takes the male and female halves of the equation one at a time, delving into the parts of the male and female reproductive systems as well as the functions of those parts. We already have gotten things moving before this part, but now it’s time to study how nerves and hormones keep things hopping. In this part, we lay out the basic building blocks of the nervous system, help you wire it all together, and then show you how the body sends messages flying along a solid spine of brainy material. After that, we come to our senses with an overview of the eyes and ears (we cover taste in the digestive system chapter, touch in the skin chapter, and smell in the respi- ratory chapter). Then we turn hormonal to absorb what the endocrine system does, including observing the functions of the ringmaster of this multi-ring circus, the pitu- itary gland. We also delve into the various hormones coursing through your body, why they’re there, and how they do what they do. First we identify ten Web sites that can help you advance your knowledge of anatomy and physiology. Then we give you a list of ten key things to keep in mind as you study this illustrious and fascinating topic. Icons Used in This Book Throughout this book, you’ll find symbols in the margins that highlight critical ideas and information. Here’s what they mean: The tip icon gives you juicy tidbits about how best to remember tricky terms or con- cepts in anatomy and physiology. Anatomy & Physiology Workbook For Dummies 4 The example icon marks questions for you to try your hand at.
It acts by initially stimulating and then depressing inducing uterine contractions with varying degrees of pain luteinizing hormone released by the pituitary effective extra super avana 260mg erectile dysfunction 4xorigional, which in turn according to the strength of the contractions induced purchase extra super avana with paypal online doctor erectile dysfunction. Synthetic prostaglandin E2 (dinoprostone) is used for the Clomifene and tamoxifen are used in the treatment of induction of late (second-trimester) therapeutic abortion, female infertility due to oligomenorrhoea or secondary amen- because the uterus is sensitive to its actions at this stage, orrhoea (for example, that associated with polycystic ovarian whereas oxytocin only reliably causes uterine contraction later disease). As an adjunct, chori- labour in women with intact membranes regardless of parity onic gonadotrophin is sometimes used. Both are equally effective in inducing Clomifene is used primarily for anovulatory infertility. It tocin is preferred for this, because it lacks the many side is contraindicated in those with liver disease, ovarian cysts, effects of prostaglandin E2 that relate to its actions on extra- hormone-dependent tumours and abnormal uterine bleeding uterine tissues. Side effects of clomifene include visual disturbances, ovar- Dinoprostone is available as vaginal tablets, pessaries and ian hyperstimulation, hot flushes, abdominal discomfort, vaginal gels. Uterine include the use of prostaglandin E1 (alprostadil) in neonates activity must be monitored carefully and hyperstimulation with congenital heart defects that are ‘ductus-dependent’. Large doses of oxytocin can cause excessive fluid preserves the patency of the ductus arteriosus until surgical cor- retention. Conversely, in infants with inappropriately administration of vaginal prostaglandins. This is administered by intramuscular injection with the deliv- ery of the anterior shoulder. It is released from the pituitary by suckling and lates in the blood, bound to a plasma globulin. Any role in the initiation of labour concentration is variable, but should exceed 10nmol/L in is not established. Synthetic oxytocin is effective into the more active androgen dihydrotestosterone by a 5-α- when administered by any parenteral route, and is usually reductase enzyme. Both testosterone and dihydrotestosterone given as a constant-rate intravenous infusion to initiate or are inactivated in the liver. Androgens have a wide range of augment labour, often following artificial rupture of the mem- activities, the most important of which include actions on: branes. Ergometrine (an alkaloid derived from ergot, a fungus that infects rye) is a powerful oxytocic. The uterus is sensitive at all Testicular function is controlled by the anterior pituitary. It is given intramuscu- • Follicle-stimulating hormone acts on the seminiferous larly, or intravenously in emergency. If given intramuscularly, oxytocin acts by the hypothalamus via gonadotrophin-releasing hormone. Prostaglandins are involved in a wide range of physio- with low concentrations of circulating testosterone, replace- logical and pathological processes, including inflammation ment therapy improves secondary sex characteristics and may (see Chapter 26) and haemostasis and thrombosis (see restore erectile function and libido, but it does not restore fer- Chapter 30). In hypothalamic or pituitary dysfunction who wish to become addition, it has many other actions, including inhibition of fertile includes gonadotrophins or pulsatile gonadotrophin- acid secretion by the stomach, increased mucus secretion releasing hormone. Delayed puberty due to gonadal deficiency (primary or Uses secondary) or severe constitutional delay can be treated by Cyproterone acetate is used in men with inoperable prostatic testosterone esters or gonadotrophins. Care is needed because carcinoma, before initiating treatment with gonadotrophin- premature fusion of epiphyses may occur, resulting in short releasing hormone analogues to prevent the flare of disease stature and such treatment is best supervised by specialist activity induced by the initial increase in sex hormone release. It has also been used to reduce sexual drive in cases of sexual Occasional patients with disseminated breast cancer derive deviation and in children with precocious puberty. Their legitimate uses are few, but embarking on treatment for relatively minor indications. Cyproterone acts by competing with testosterone for its high- affinity receptors, thereby inhibiting prostatic growth, spermato- Mechanism of action genesis and masculinization. It also has strong progestational Testosterone and dihydrotestosterone interact with intracellular activity and a very weak glucocorticoid effect. Adverse effects Adverse effects Side effects include gynaecomastia in approximately 20% of Virilization in women and increased libido in men are pre- patients (occasionally with benign nodules and galactor- dictable effects. In women, acne, growth of facial hair and deep- rhoea), inhibition of spermatogenesis (which usually returns ening of the voice are common undesirable features produced to normal six months after cessation of treatment) and tired- by androgens. Other masculinizing effects and menstrual irregu- ness and lassitude (which can be so marked as to make driv- larities can also develop. Other adverse effects include jaundice, particularly of the Use cholestatic type, and because of this complication methyl- Dutasteride and finasteride inhibit 5α-reductase and reduce testosterone is no longer prescribed. Azospermia occurs due to prostate size with improvement in urinary flow rate and inhibition of gonadotrophin secretion. They are useful alternatives to malignant disease with androgens, hypercalcaemia (which may alpha blockers (e. Adverse effects include impotence, decreased libido, ejacu- lation disorders, breast tenderness and enlargement. Women Pharmacokinetics of child-bearing potential should avoid handling crushed or Although testosterone is readily absorbed following oral broken tablets of finasteride or leaking capsules of dutasteride. Testosterone in oil is well absorbed from intramuscular injection sites, but is also rapidly metabolized. The chief metabolites are androsterone and etiocholanolone, The complex interplay between physiological and psychological which are mainly excreted in the urine. About 6% of adminis- factors that determines sexual desire and performance makes it tered testosterone appears in the faeces having undergone difficult to assess the influence of drugs on sexual function. Drugs that affect the autonomic supply gestadine and norgestimate, against the recently reported to the sex organs are not alone in interfering with sexual function. Drugs that do interfere with autonomic function choose a pill containing norethisterone, levonorgestrel or and can also cause erectile dysfunction include phenothiazines, norgestimate. The majority of women achieve good cycle con- butyrophenones and tricyclic antidepressants. Pelvic non-adren- trol with combined oral contraceptives containing oestrogen ergic, non-cholinergic nerves are involved in erectile function at a dose of about 30–35μg; pills containing the higher dose of oestrogen would only be required if the individual was on and utilize nitric oxide as their neurotransmitter. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors licensed for the treat- ment of erectile dysfunction include sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil. Caution is needed in patients with cardiovascular disease, anatomical deformation of the penis, e. Peyronie’s dis- A 50-year-old woman consults you about her symptoms of flushing and vaginal discomfort. She is thin and is a ease, and in those with a predisposition to prolonged erection, smoker. They are contraindicated in patients Question who are on nitrates and in patients with a previous history of Outline the therapy most likely to be of benefit, including non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy. The side effects include dyspepsia, vomiting, headache, Answer This woman is probably menopausal and is suffering the flushing, dizziness, myalgia, visual disturbances, raised intra- consequences of the vasomotor effects of the menopause, as ocular pressure and nasal congestion.