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The phytochemical analysis of Aegle marmelos root extract showed the presence of alkaloids discount viagra sublingual line penile injections for erectile dysfunction side effects, flavonoids viagra sublingual 100mg sale impotence 35 years old, steroids/triterpenes, glycosides, tannin, reducing sugar, polyphenol, carbohydrates and amino acids. All these findings suggested that Aegle marmelos root extract possessed significant antidiarrheal effect in castor oil-induced diarrheal mice model. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate scientifically the antidiarrhoeal effect of Curcuma longa Linn. The rhizome of this plant has long history for treating diarrhea in Myanmar, as a traditional medicine. However, there is no scientific report on antidiarrhoeal effect of Curcuma longa Linn. Therefore, this study is to confirm the antidiarrhoeal activity of Curcuma longa Linn. The albino mice were used for in vivo antidiarrhoeal effect and isolated rabbits intestine were used for in vitro activity to explore the possible mechanism of action of Curcuma longa Linn. The antidiarrhoeal effect of the defatted 70% ethanolic extract Curcuma longa was tested by using three methods, (1) castor oil-induced diarrhea, castor oil-induced enteropooling and (3) castor oil-induced small intestinal transit. Dose dependent decreased in castor oil-induced diarrhea was found by counting the stool in all 3 tested groups with the dose of 1. Dose dependent increase in onset of defecation in minutes was found in all 3 tested groups, 21. Curcuma longa extract significantly inhibited castor oil-induced intestinal fluid accumulation. Curcuma longa extract also significantly reduced the castor oil-induced intestinal transit. Carbachol and histamine induced contractions of small intestine were abolished by Curcuma longa extract showing that Curcuma longa Linn. The phytochemical analysis of the defatted 70% ethanolic extract and dried rhizome powders of Curcuma longa Linn. The chemicals such as, alkaloids, steroids/triterpenes, tannins and reducing sugars proposed to be the chemicals responsible for antidiarrhoeal effect were present in both ethanolic extract and dried powders. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate scientifically the antidiarrhoeal effect of Ficus hispida Linn. Although all parts of this plant are used in Indian traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments, antidiarrhoeal activity of the leaves of Ficus hispida Linn. Therefore, this study is to confirm the antidiarrhoeal activity of Ficus hispida Linn. The albino mice were used for in vivo antidiarrhoeal effect and isolated rabbits intestine were used for in vitro activity to explore the possible mechanism of action of Ficus hispida Linn. General pharmacological screening test of the extract had shown no abnormal changes. Dose dependent decrease in frequency, enteropooling and percent intestinal transit of castor oil-induced diarrhoea in all 3 tested groups (i. Anti-diarrhoeal efficacy of some Burmese Indigenous Drug Formulations in experimental diarrhoeal test models. Since their raw ingredients are available locally and cheaply, both drugs are appropriate for clinical evaluation. Three chemical compounds namely wedelolactone, demethyl wedelolactone and luteolin which had been reported to possess hepatoprotective activity were detected from Kyeik-hman (E. Before screening of blood sugar lowering effect in rabbit model, the morphological and diagnostic characters of Gynura procumbens (Lour. Then phytochemical constituents, physicochemical properties, determination of heavy metals, determination of aflatoxins and pesticide residues, elemental analysis, microbial contamination and acute toxicity of G. Then, the observation was continued to at least two weeks for any toxic and harmful effects due to the dried leaves of G. It was observed that the dried leaves powder was free from harmful effect and the powder had not toxic effect during the observation period of two weeks with permission dose of 6g/kg. In the study of antihyperglycemic activity, the different doses of dried leaves powder (0. All the three doses showed significantly antihyperglycemic activity at 1hour (p<0. The administration of 3g/kg of dried leaves powder similarly lowered sugar level in blood as glibenclamide B. In comparison of percent inhibition of hyperglycemic between two different test agents, 1. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antihyperglycemic effect of aqueous extract of Piper betle Linn. Diabetes was induced in overnight fasted wistar strain albino rats by single intraperitoneal injection of freshly prepared solution of alloxan (100mg/kg) in distilled water. The characteristicts of diabetes such as polydipsia, polyuria, hyperglycemia and unexplained weight loss were reported in alloxan induced diabetic rats during the study. Significant reduction of blood glucose level was observed at 2hr , 3hr and 4hr after administration when compared with that of control group (p<0. Central nervous system depression, muscle paralysis, cyanosis around mouth and nose, pulmonary congestion and gastric erosions were observed in acute toxicity study with lethal dose. Concurrent histological studies of the pancreatic islets showed beta cells were necrotic and pyknotic nuclei with a homogenous cytoplasm and alpha cells were unaffected in alloxan induced diabetic rats. It was concluded that the present study clearly showed that aqueous extract of Piper betle Linn. Tin May Nyunt; Ohnmar May Tin Hlaing; Zaw Htet; Ohnmar; Thaw Zin; Khin Chit; Aye Than. While herbal medicine is the oldest form of medicine extensively practiced in Myanmar, it is still a very young science. It has also been claimed to be devoid of hazardous side effects which are often experienced by western anti-hypertensive agents during long-term use. With the aim to establish the therapeutic status of Plantago major in actual clinical practice, a clinical trial was carried out on 10 mild to moderate hypertensive patients who are attending an outpatient department of Thingangyun Sanpya Hospital, Yangon. The initial blood pressure between 140/90mmHg and 160/90mmHg was controlled with the trial dose 5 tablets (1. Comparative study with other standard drugs and long is conducted in future research. Tin May Nyunt; Khine Khine Lwin; Than Than Aye; May Aye Than; Khin Chit; Thein Kyaw; Ohnmar May Tin Hlaing; Min Wun; Nu Nu Win. A clinical trial to determine the antihypertensive effect of medicinal plant, Plantago major Linn. After washout period of 3 days of stopping anti-hypertensive drugs, patients were treated orally with Plantago major Linn. Monitoring of blood pressure and vital signs were done on day 1, day 2, and day 3 and weekly up to 12 weeks.

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To protect against ulcers cheap 100 mg viagra sublingual free shipping causes of erectile dysfunction in 40s, the lining of the stomach and small intestine has a layer of slippery mucus called mucin buy discount viagra sublingual 100 mg line erectile dysfunction doterra. Other protective factors include the constant renewal of intestinal cells and the secretion of factors that neutralize the acid when it comes into contact with the lining of the stomach and intestine. Contrary to popular opinion, excessive secretion of gastric acid output is rarely a factor in the development of gastric ulcers. In fact, patients who have gastric ulcers tend to secrete normal or even reduced levels of gastric acid. In duodenal ulcer patients, however, almost half have increased gastric acid output. This increase may be due to an increased number of acid-producing cells, known as parietal cells. As a group, patients with duodenal ulcers have twice as many parietal cells in their stomach as people without ulcers. Even with an increase in gastric acid output, under normal circumstances there are enough protective factors to prevent either gastric or duodenal ulcer formation. However, when the integrity of these protective factors is impaired, an ulcer can form. It has been shown that 90 to 100% of patients with duodenal ulcers, 70% with gastric ulcers, and about 50% of people over the age of 50 test positive for this bacterium. Helicobacter pylori infection increases gastric pH, thereby setting up a positive-feedback scenario. Aspirin and Other Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Use of aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is associated with a significant risk of peptic ulcer. However, the dosage of 75 mg per day was associated with 40% less bleeding than 300 mg per day and 30% less bleeding than 150 mg per day. The researchers concluded: “No conventionally used prophylactic aspirin regimen seems free of the risk of peptic ulcer complications. One of the big problems is that studies attempting to examine this assumption about stress and ulcers have been poorly designed. Several studies have shown that the number of stressful life events is not significantly different in peptic ulcer patients compared with carefully selected, ulcer-free controls. As a group, ulcer patients have been characterized as tending to repress emotions. At the very least, we encourage our patients with ulcers to discover enjoyable outlets of self-expression as well as to develop effective stress management in their lives. Smoking Smoking is a significant factor in the occurrence and severity of peptic ulcers. Increased frequency of occurrence, decreased response to peptic ulcer therapy, and an increased mortality due to peptic ulcers are all related to smoking. First of all, smoking increases the backflow (reflux) of bile salts into the stomach. Bile salts are extremely irritating to the stomach and initial portions of the duodenum. Bile salt reflux induced by smoking appears to be the primary reason for the increased peptic ulcer rate in smokers. Smoking also decreases the secretion of bicarbonate (an important neutralizer of gastric acid) by the pancreas and accelerates the passage of food from the stomach into the duodenum, thus not allowing the acid enough time to interact with food. Food Allergies Clinical and experimental evidence points to food allergy as a primary factor in many cases of peptic ulcer. However, population studies offer additional evidence that increased milk consumption leads to a greater likelihood of ulcer. Complications such as hemorrhage, perforation, and obstruction represent medical emergencies that require immediate hospitalization. Obviously, the best treatment of a peptic ulcer involves identification of the causative factor and its appropriate elimination. Diet Fiber A diet rich in fiber and low in refined sugar is associated with a reduced rate of duodenal ulcers as compared with a low-fiber diet. The therapeutic use of a high-fiber diet or soluble fiber supplement in patients with recently healed duodenal ulcers reduces the recurrence rate by half. Further research has shown that the high glutamine content of the juice is probably responsible for its efficacy in treating ulcers. Half of the patients using glutamine showed complete healing (according to radiographic analysis) within two weeks, and 22 of the 24 showed complete relief and healing within four weeks. In addition, isothiocyanates such as sulforaphane, from vegetables in the brassica family, have shown considerable activity against H. Values returned to their original levels two months after treatment was discontinued. The best-known and most widely used bismuth preparation is bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto- Bismol). To find a compounding pharmacist in your area, call the International Academy of Compounding Pharmacists at (800) 927–4227. An advantage of bismuth preparations over standard antibiotic approaches to eradicating H. Bismuth subcitrate may cause a temporary and harmless darkening of the tongue, the stool, or both. Bismuth subsalicylate should not be taken by children recovering from the flu, chicken pox, or other viral infection, as it may mask the nausea and vomiting associated with Reye’s syndrome, a rare but serious illness. Nutritional Supplements Vitamins A and E Vitamins A and E have been shown to inhibit the development of stress ulcers in rats and are important factors in maintaining the integrity of the mucosal barrier. It is found in relatively high concentrations in several body tissues, most notably skeletal muscle, heart muscle, and the brain. The exact biological role of carnosine is still under investigation, but numerous animal studies have demonstrated that it possesses strong and specific antioxidant properties, protects against radiation damage, improves heart function, and promotes wound healing. Zinc bound to carnosine exerts significant protection against ulcer formation and has ulcer-healing properties. Clinical studies with humans demonstrate the same effects, including an ability to antagonize H. However, one of the substances in licorice, glycyrrhizinic acid, has known side effects that include salt and water retention, leading to hypertension. The activity of the most potent flavonoid was shown to be similar to that of bismuth subcitrate. The flavor is bitter at first, but after being chewed the drops release a refreshing, slightly piney or cedary flavor. People in the Mediterranean region have used mastic as a medicine for gastrointestinal ailments for several thousand years.

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For prints buy cheap viagra sublingual 100mg on line erectile dysfunction statistics us, edition refers to the total number of impressions or copies made from the original discount viagra sublingual 100 mg fast delivery impotence low testosterone. Edition is ofen found at the bottom lef or bottom right side of a print, expressed as a fraction. For example, 10/200 means that this print is the tenth impression of a total of 200 impressions made. Tis chapter covers citing prints and photographs that are published as separate entities, not as illustrations in journal articles or books. See Chapter 1B Parts of Journal Articles and Chapter 2C Parts of Books for information on citing the latter. Paintings, sculptures, and other works of art are included only when a print or photograph of them has been made. See Chapter 17B Collections of Prints and Photographs for information on citing collections. Citation Rules with Examples for Individual Prints and Photographs Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R afer the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O afer the name means it is optional. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Names in non-roman alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Korean) or character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese). Romanization, a form of transliteration, means using the roman (Latin) alphabet to represent the letters or characters of another alphabet. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. An organization such as a university, society, association, corporation, or governmental body may serve as an author. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry Division. American College of Surgeons, Committee on Trauma, Ad Hoc Subcommittee on Outcomes, Working Group. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medicine; American College of Emergency Physicians, Pediatric Committee. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Print or photograph author with optional full frst name Prints and Photographs 1045 3. If you abbreviate a word in one reference in a list of references, abbreviate the same word in all references. Marubini E (Istituto di Statistica Medica e Biometria, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy). Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Moskva becomes Moscow Wien becomes Vienna Italia becomes Italy Espana becomes Spain Examples for Author Affiliation 9. Print or photograph with author afliation Title for Individual Prints and Photographs (required) General Rules for Title • Enter the title of the print or photograph as it appears on the original document, in the original language • Capitalize only the frst word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless some other form of punctuation such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point is already present • Follow non-English titles with a translation whenever possible; place the translation in square brackets • End a title with a space unless a question mark or exclamation point already ends it Prints and Photographs 1049 Specific Rules for Title • Titles not in English • Titles in more than one language • Titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character • Titles ending in punctuation other than a period • No title can be found Box 15. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Indicate the languages, separated by commas, afer the date (and physical description, if given). Tobacco or health: choose health = Le tabac ou la sante: choisissez la sante = Tabaco o salud: elija la salud [poster]. A print or a photograph ofen will have no title, either on the face of the item or on its reverse. Print or photograph title for a conference Type of Medium for Individual Prints and Photographs (required) General Rules for Type of Medium • Indicate the specifc type of medium (print, photograph, poster, etc. Print or photograph with supplemental note included Prints and Photographs 1055 Edition for Individual Prints and Photographs (optional) General Rules for Edition Prints are made in a varying number of impressions or copies, called an edition, such as an edition of 20 or an edition of 100. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Print or photograph with no place, publisher, or date of publication found Publisher for Individual Prints and Photographs (required) General Rules for Publisher • Record the name of the publisher as it appears in the publication, using whatever capitalization and punctuation is found there • Abbreviate well-known publisher names with caution to avoid confusion. If you abbreviate a word in one reference in a list of references, abbreviate the same word in all references. Place all translated publisher names in square brackets unless the translation is given in the publication. Tokyo: Medikaru Rebyusha; Beijing (China): [Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Population Research Institute]; Taiyuan (China): Shanxi ke xue ji she chu ban she; [Note that the concept of capitalization does not exist in Chinese. Terefore in transliterating Chinese publisher names only the frst word and proper nouns are capitalized. Valencia (Spain): Universidade de Valencia, Instituto de Historia de la Ciencia y Documentacion Lopez Pinero; • Ignore diacritics, accents, and special characters in names. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Aarhus (Denmark): Aarhus-Universitetsforlag [Aarhus University Press]; • As an option, you may translate all publisher names not in English. Place all translated publisher names in square brackets unless the translation is given in the publication. Designate the agency or other organization that issued the print or photograph as the publisher and include distributor information as a note, preceded by "Available from: ". Print or photograph with no place, publisher, or date of publication found Date of Publication for Individual Prints and Photographs (required) General Rules for Date of Publication • Always give the year of publication • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. A copyright date is identifed by the symbol ©, the letter "c", or the word copyright preceding the date. Tis convention alerts a user that the information in the publication is older than the year of publication implies. If no date of publication can be found, but the publication contains a date of copyright, use the date of copyright preceded by the letter "c"; for example c2005. Observation of bacterial growths in medium to study their efects on teeth [photograph]. Observation of bacterial growths in medium to study their efects on teeth [photograph]. Print or photograph with no place, publisher, or date of publication found Physical Description for Individual Prints and Photographs (optional) General Rules for Physical Description • Give the physical characteristics of the print, photograph, etc. Specific Rules for Physical Description • Language for describing physical characteristics 1066 Citing Medicine Box 34.

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